Review the key components of the health care policy process in Ch. 3 of Health policymaking in the United States. Additionally, Chapters 5-9 of the course text are also excellent resources for each stage of the policy process. Here is a breakdown of what you can find in each chapter of Longest (2016):
- Chapter 5: Formulation
- Chapter 6: Legislation
- Chapter 7: Implementation
- Chapter 8: Implementation/Analysis/Evaluation
- Chapter 9: Analysis/Evaluation and Revision
The policy cycle provides lawmakers with a pathway for developing a policy and guiding it through the institutions of our government. The cycle starts with identification of a targeted problem and ultimately ends up with providing a specific course of action. Along the way, the outcomes of a policy are subjected to various levels of review, evaluation, and revisions that result in a continual loop. As a health care administrator, it’s important to have a working knowledge of the process and how the process ultimately leads to implementation of health care laws that eventually will have an impact on what you do.
Write a paper that explains the policy process and explains how the Affordable Care Act advanced through the policy process stages. Your paper must include the following:
1.Discuss five stages of the policy process identified in Longest (2016) to describe each stage:
2.Explain how the Affordable Care Act advanced through each stage of the policy process
- How the law was formed/proposed and then passed by Congress
- How it has been implemented and what agencies primarily implement the law
- One or two ways the ACA can be evaluated
- List at least one revision to the law since it has been passed
Expert Solution Preview
The healthcare policy process is crucial in the development and implementation of healthcare policies that shape the healthcare sector. It is the responsibility of lawmakers and healthcare administrators to understand the policy process and how policies are formulated, legislated, implemented, evaluated, and revised. This paper discusses the five stages of the policy process and how the Affordable Care Act advanced through each stage.
1. Discuss five stages of the policy process identified in Longest (2016) to describe each stage:
Formulation: This is the stage where a problem is identified, and policy alternatives are developed to address the problem.
Legislation: This stage involves the introduction of a policy proposal in the legislature, review of the proposal, and voting on the proposal.
Implementation: Once a policy is passed, it enters the implementation stage, where responsible agencies put the policy into action.
Evaluation/analysis: This stage involves assessing the effectiveness of the policy and analyzing its impact to determine if it is achieving the intended outcomes.
Revision: Based on the evaluation and analysis, revisions may be made to the policy to ensure it meets its objectives.
2. Explain how the Affordable Care Act advanced through each stage of the policy process:
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was formulated in response to the problem of rising healthcare costs and the number of people uninsured in the United States. The policy was developed after extensive research and analysis of similar policies in other countries. A variety of stakeholders, including government officials, healthcare providers, and insurance companies, were consulted during the formulation stage.
In 2009, the ACA was introduced in Congress, beginning the legislation stage. The bill underwent several revisions before it was passed in 2010. The ACA was then signed into law by President Obama.
The implementation stage of the ACA began in 2011, with the establishment of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) responsible for implementing the law. Other agencies, including the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also played a significant role in implementation.
The ACA has undergone extensive evaluation and analysis since implementation, with studies conducted on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare costs, and health outcomes. One way the ACA can be evaluated is by analyzing the number of individuals who have gained coverage since its implementation. Another evaluation criterion is the impact of the policy on healthcare costs, such as the ACA’s tax on high-cost health plans.
Since its passage, the ACA has undergone several revisions, including changes to the individual mandate and the employer mandate. The law has also been challenged in courts by opponents, who have sought to overturn certain provisions of the legislation.
In conclusion, understanding the healthcare policy process is essential for healthcare administrators, policymakers, and other stakeholders. The ACA serves as an excellent example of the policy process, and its journey through formulation, legislation, implementation, evaluation/analysis, and revision offers valuable insights into the policy process.
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