The “Haves” and “Have Nots”: Why Are There Disparities?
Earlier in the course, the different population health outcomes of
two culturally and economically similar neighbors (the U.S. and Canada)
were considered. This week, the focus shifts to the eastern hemisphere
and an examination of health inequalities between and within nations
with large, diverse populations.
Both India and China had similar health outcomes at the end of WWII.
Unlike India, China’s health improved tremendously over the next 30
years. When it did not have a focus on economic growth, China’s health
achievements surpassed India. Since the economic reforms 30 years ago,
health progress in China has not been growing as much. Today, India is
booming and is home to some of the richest people in the world, but it
is also home to more food insecurities than anywhere else in the world.
To prepare for this Assignment, review your
Learning Resources this week. Consider how certain large populations
within a single political entity can still display disparate health
outcomes. Think about how areas such as Kerala can have remarkably
different health outcomes than the countries they are in. What makes
those areas different from the rest of the country?
The Assignment (3–4 pages):
- Describe two health outcomes for which India and China have had different experiences in the last half century.
- Explain the reasons for the disparities noted.
- Describe the experience for those outcomes in Kerala and suggest
reasons for why they are similar or different from the rest of India.
- Expand on your insights utilizing the Learning Resources.
Use APA formatting for your Assignment and to cite your resources.
Expert Solution Preview
The Assignment aims to analyze the health outcomes of India and China in the last half-century and explore the reasons for the disparities noted. The Assignment also requires an explanation of how Kerala differs from the rest of India in terms of health outcomes and the reasons for the differences. This paper discusses the health outcomes of India and China and the factors attributed to the disparities observed, the health outcomes of Kerala, and the reasons why they differ from the rest of India based on the Learning Resources.
1. Describe two health outcomes for which India and China have had different experiences in the last half-century.
India and China have had different experiences in terms of maternal and infant mortality rates and life expectancy. India’s maternal mortality rate was 488 per 100,000 live births in 1990, while China’s rate was 80 in the same year. Similarly, India’s infant mortality rate was 64.7 per 1000 live births in 1990, much higher than China’s rate of 34.1 in the same year. India’s life expectancy was 60.1 years in 1990, considerably lower than China’s life expectancy of 68.3 in the same year.
2. Explain the reasons for the disparities noted.
The disparities observed in health outcomes between India and China can be attributed to several factors such as differences in healthcare infrastructure, policy implementation, and economic growth. China’s economic growth over the last few decades led to significant investments in healthcare infrastructure. Conversely, India’s healthcare infrastructure remains inadequate due to limited funding and poor policy implementation. China also implemented a one-child policy that helped control population growth, improving maternal and infant mortality rates. India, on the other hand, exhibited lax population policies and has one of the highest birth rates globally. The low socio-economic status, low literacy rates, and limited access to healthcare in India also significantly contribute to the disparities noted.
3. Describe the experience for those outcomes in Kerala and suggest reasons for why they are similar or different from the rest of India.
Kerala’s health outcomes for maternal and infant mortality rates and life expectancy are much better than the rest of India. Kerala’s maternal mortality rate in 2015-17 was 46 per 100,000 live births, compared to the national average of 122. Similarly, Kerala’s infant mortality rate was 10 per 1000 live births in the same period, compared to the national average of 33. Furthermore, Kerala has a life expectancy of 74 years, much higher than the national average of 68.5 years. The reasons why Kerala is different from the rest of India can be attributed to the socio-economic status of its citizens, literacy rates, and accessible healthcare facilities. Kerala has higher literacy rates and per capita income compared to the national averages, leading to better socio-economic status. Additionally, Kerala has a higher number of healthcare facilities with better accessibility, increasing the utilization of healthcare services.
4. Expand on your insights utilizing the Learning Resources.
The Learning Resources provided deeper insights into the disparities noted between India and China. The resources indicated that while China’s economic reforms resulted in better healthcare outcomes, India’s lack of comprehensive healthcare reforms contributed to poorer health outcomes. The one-child policy in China accounted for the lower infant and maternal mortality rates compared to India. The Learning Resources also indicated that Kerala’s improved health outcomes can be attributed to better socio-economic factors, health interventions, and political commitment. The insights gleaned from the Learning Resources emphasized the significant impact of socio-economic factors in health outcomes and the need for better healthcare infrastructure and policy interventions to bridge the disparities observed.
The paper discussed the health outcomes of India and China and highlighted the factors attributed to the disparities observed. The paper also described Kerala’s health outcomes and why they differ from the rest of India, based on the Learning Resources. The insights gleaned emphasize the need for comprehensive healthcare reforms, better healthcare infrastructure, and policy interventions to improve health outcomes and bridge the observed disparities.